The vasoconstriction from products with caffeine can reduce puffiness, and cooling products can help reduce inflammation and promote blood flow. But keep in mind that any benefit you see is temporary. A metal roller ball—either on its own or as the applicator of an eye cream or serum—can gently distribute lymphatic build-up, helping it drain from underneath the eyes while also cooling the inflammation.
But for me, the most remarkable aspect is that while these very noticeable results are certainly advertised at the cosmetic dermatologist’s office after hundreds of dollars worth of treatments, I’ve been able to see such a dramatic transformation at home, with a comparably minute investment of $27 to $40—and far less blood, pain, and inflammation, too. Why isn’t everyone doing this?
Strategic decisions were made to grow the business even further across all teams, including business and editorial, and included bringing on a former employee from Birchbox, a subscription box for makeup, hair care and skincare. Furthermore, putting together the box is a newsroom-wide and collaborative effort and is something editors across editorial operations works on.
But for me, the most remarkable aspect is that while these very noticeable results are certainly advertised at the cosmetic dermatologist’s office after hundreds of dollars worth of treatments, I’ve been able to see such a dramatic transformation at home, with a comparably minute investment of $27 to $40—and far less blood, pain, and inflammation, too. Why isn’t everyone doing this?
I love subscription boxes. So after reading all the online “professional” reviews, I went for Allure since Birch is so/so (but has TOP customer service) and FabFitFun only comes 4x a year. I never received my January box, nor did many others, yet they advertised for people to sign up and get it right up until February. I emailed them a polite message and heard nothing back. Finally, I tried to cancel my subscription online, and their website has “error messages” for every time you try to perform that action on your account. You have to call. The person I spoke to today assured me that I would be given a refund in 10 business days to my debit card. If it doesn’t happen, I WILL be going through the bank, since it appears that a number of individuals are not receiving their money. Allure was poorly prepared for this subscription service.
And I was officially hooked. At only 23, I was used to looking perpetually exhausted. Genetics had played a role, sure, but very long hours at the office and a stress-ridden lifestyle certainly hadn’t helped. Even if I was able to diminish the shadows under my eyes with a heavy layer of colour-correcting concealer, the bags remained—and in some cases, the creasing made them look even more obvious. But I was still happier to resign myself to this rather than the alternative: As much as I wanted to say screw it and just go without makeup, you can only get (rude) remarks like “Are you feeling all right?” and “Whoa—late night?” so many times before it starts to sting.
When we think of anti-aging cream ingredients, a lot of vitamins and minerals come to mind. From anti-oxidants to Vitamin A and B5, Mother Earth has a whole lot to offer when it comes to combating the signs of aging. One thing that you might not think of right away though is copper. Believe it or not, copper is an amazing element that can tighten your skin and even restore it to its natural, youthful glow!
Staying hydrated is one key if you're wondering how to get rid of bags under your eyes. When the body is dehydrated, it responds by retaining as much water as it can, thus causing puffiness and under-eye bags. One way to avoid the bags altogether is by staying hydrated. To ensure you're properly hydrated, stick to the 8 by 8 rule: Drink eight ounces of water eight times a day. That adds up to a half gallon, which is the recommended amount of water to consume daily.
After cleansing your face and applying a layer of serum or whatever primer you’re using, it’s time to start dermarolling. Stretch your skin taut, and roll across it diagonally, horizontally, and vertically, pressing as hard as you can tolerate. I focus on my smile lines, lips, and underneath my eyes, as well as any acne scars or discolouration that needs tending to. Try not to roll over one single area more than a couple of times, and never use your roller on existing zits or open wounds. After you’re done rolling, apply another layer of serum to your face, and sterilise your device with rubbing alcohol before storing it in its case.
What causes them? The main causes for dark circles are genetics and skin tone, Kenneth Howe, M.D., a board-certified dermatologist at Wexler Dermatology, tells SELF. The under-eye area can look purple or bluish because the skin there is so thin and translucent that you can easily see the underlying veins. It can be more apparent in people with fair skin, and those with very little subcutaneous fat supporting the area under the lower lid. Lack of sleep increases venous congestion; fluid build-up leads to pooled blood in those superficial blood vessels, making dark circles look even darker when you’re tired.
Vitamin A and its derivatives (retinoids) are the most prevalent anti-aging ingredients on the market today. Tretinoin, a retinoid approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), is only available by prescription. And although there is ample scientific evidence that shows the ability of retinoids to have a positive effect on cell gene rearrangements, fibroblast activity, and collagen synthesis, studies proving cosmetic benefits with statistical significance are lacking.
"If dark, puffy [bags under your eyes] seem to be the morning problem, consider sleeping on your back with an extra pillow so that fluid doesn't pool overnight. Keeping your pillow protected from allergens (dust and dust mites) with a protective encasement can also help when allergies are the culprit," says Rebecca Tung, a dermatologist in La Grange Park, Illinois.
I am a subscriber to It cosmetics, I like it because the makeup itself is light and provides full coverage without caking and it looks fresh all day and I have never heard of the other listed makeup boxes. I like that I can choose how many items I want and which items I receive and pay for it over 3 months. I also like that I know what I am getting and can order what I want or need, that they are also coming out with new products and expanding the line so you need to check with the website if you need or want something else. But the price is a little high, and they do not have online ordering to change and update what you receive. You have to call them but the customer service people were very knowledgeable, professional and accommodating. They say you can cancel at any time.
Aloe Leaf Juice*, Shea Butter*, Jojoba Oil*, Rooibos Extract*, DMAE, Emulsifying Wax, Green Tea*, MSM, Hyaluronic Acid, White Tea Leaf Extract*, Evening Primrose Oil, Vitamin E, White Willow Bark Extract*, Rosehip Fruit Oil, Lichen Extract, Eucalyptus Leaf Oil, Peppermint Leaf Oil, Lemongrass Oil. *Certified Organic. We only use the highest-grade natural ingredients. We use 100% certified organic ingredients when possible and NEVER any: Petrochemicals, sulfates, parabens, phthalates, synthetic fragrance or color, TEA, DEA, Glycols, silicones, or PEGs. Tested only on humans. In simple terms: We make the purest products a man can use with 100% assurance you're not putting suspect chemicals on your body.
I’ve purchased rollers from Amazon for as little as $16. Benjamin actually chided me a little for this; though, as with anything I purchase from that vast marketplace, I pay close attention to reviews before pulling the trigger. Still, it might be wiser to buy something from a more verified retailer, like Benjamin’s own Stacked Skincare. You’ll want to replace your microroller after a few uses.
Find anti-wrinkle creams that provide the supple, smooth skin you desire. While most anti-aging creams are for your entire face, some eye creams are specifically formulated to minimize the fine lines and nourish the skin around the eyes. Try the anti-aging cream formulas that include ingredients to restore elasticity, stimulate collagen production or firm sag-prone areas. There are even anti-aging hair products designed to shield your hair from the effects of the environment. Select the anti-aging product that will help you smooth, soften and hydrate your skin.
After using a wrinkle cream, “patients sometimes break out and think that means they’re allergic to the product as a whole as opposed to just one ingredient,” says Dr. Ford. The most likely culprit in these anti-aging products, she says, is actually vitamin E, an irritant that also showed up a lot in our review on the best lip balm. So before you bag wrinkle creams altogether, look for products that don’t contain vitamin E, commonly listed as tocopherol. If you find that you’re still having a bad reaction, Dr. Ford advises that you try a product that has just one of the powerhouse anti-agers.
I am a subscriber to It cosmetics, I like it because the makeup itself is light and provides full coverage without caking and it looks fresh all day and I have never heard of the other listed makeup boxes. I like that I can choose how many items I want and which items I receive and pay for it over 3 months. I also like that I know what I am getting and can order what I want or need, that they are also coming out with new products and expanding the line so you need to check with the website if you need or want something else. But the price is a little high, and they do not have online ordering to change and update what you receive. You have to call them but the customer service people were very knowledgeable, professional and accommodating. They say you can cancel at any time.

This product is great to wear during the day and at night. After I shower I put Anti-Aging Reviving Day Serum all over my face. I let it dry and than I use the Brickell Restoring Eye Cream. Than i put the Ani-Aging Cream last. At night I just use the Brickell Men's Ani-Aging Cream. I turned 50 this year and I have tried many other brands but if you want a real men's focused products this is the best that I have tried. I am in sales and most people guess I am in my early 40's so if I can slow the the appearance of aging I will. I now use 5 different products from Brickell and I love them. Cheers!


Anti-aging creams are predominantly moisturiser-based cosmeceutical skin care products marketed with the promise of making the consumer look younger by reducing, masking or preventing signs of skin aging. These signs are laxity (sagging), rhytids (wrinkles), and photoaging, which includes erythema (redness), dyspigmentation (brown discolorations), solar elastosis (yellowing), keratoses (abnormal growths), and poor texture.[1]
Exercise is a natural way to reduce the signs of aging and can promote a youthful glow to the skin, but the area around your eyes will benefit from special facial exercises. Licensed aesthetician and author of The Yoga Facelift, Marie-Veronique Nadeau explains that yoga for the face involves slow exercises of the facial muscles to help tone and tighten them. (1)  Using light pressure from your fingers as resistance, the exercises involve various facial expressions and pressure.
If you're looking for a non-retinol option, RoC Multi Correxion Lift Anti-Gravity Day Moisturizer SPF 30 fills the bill. Lab analysis showed it was tops at improving texture and one of the best at diminishing spots. Women found it matched the gold winner at reducing fine lines. "I feel like the fine lines around my eyes have diminished a little," said one. "I have noticed a glow about my face. My husband has even complimented me," weighed in another. To boost the benefit, apply your moisturizer with sunscreen all the way down to the collarbone or chest.
★VITAMIN C and RETINOL – Produced as a naturally occurring organic compound Ascorbic Acid is an anti-oxidant Vitamin C that is an essential nutrient in the production of collagen in the skin. We use Retinyl Palmitate which breaks down into Retinol as it absorbs into the skin, as this reduces the risk of adverse reaction that sometimes occurs to the concentrated form of Retinol.
You are probably well aware of when your allergies flame up, as allergy season and watery, puffy eyes are inevitable for many. Try natural remedies, such as essential oils for allergies, to help manage them and catch them before they start. Also, have a small vial of an allergy essential blend handy since for some allergies can sneak up when you least expect it.
However, I did recently called allure customer service to cancel the subscription because I been having too much product building up in my house and I wanna finish them before buying more and more products. When I called them, they offer me a gift box if I am willing to come back another month —any month— and the gift box they sent was exactly like their monthly box !!! And it was for freeee!!! Their customer service was awesome !!! 

As you age, the tissue structures and muscles supporting your eyelids weaken. The skin may start to sag, and fat that is normally confined to the area around the eye (orbit) can move into the area below your eyes. Also, the space below your eyes can accumulate fluid, making the under-eye area appear puffy or swollen. Several factors cause or worsen this effect, including:
“I swear by this moisturizer! It's packed with 2.5 percent retinol and hyaluronic acid and a ton of organic ingredients including aloe, sunflower oil, jojoba oil, green tea and dandelion that are packed with nutrients and antioxidants for intense hydration and nourishment. Retinol helps eliminate and reduce signs of aging, improve appearance of fine lines and wrinkles and improve skin texture, which is a must for flawless-looking skin. This is definitely a hidden gem!” said Heather Rohrer, PA-C, owner of Center for Aesthetic Medicine and Human Performance in Las Vegas.
On the other hand, there are a variety of all-natural wrinkle creams that are reasonably priced, and the beauty of this is that many of these creams last an extra-long time due to the fact that you only need a few drops per day. Take some time to compare prices as well as read user reviews in order to ensure you are getting a quality product at a fair and reasonable price.
“This facial moisturizer is one of Hollywood's best kept secrets. Gwyneth Paltrow swears by it, and so do I! The sheen and radiance it leaves is pretty remarkable. I can put this on in the morning and by the end of the day, my skin still feels soft and hydrated. It smooths out any patches of dry skin you may have seamlessly. It's non-greasy, loaded with a cocktail of peptides, including lipoamino acid and vitamin C, plus it's not tested on animals,” said Rohrer, whose celebrity clients include Carmen Ortega and Jay Cutler.
In addition to a lack of results, users of prescription retinoids often experience adverse side effects.  Burning and stinging of the skin, redness, peeling, and severe dryness are common complaints. Although many of these symptoms may resolve over weeks to months of use, some individuals experience persistent irritation and inflammation from topical retinoids.

Here’s another way your fridge can come in handy: Store a few metal spoons inside. When you find yourself with a little free time, perhaps while you’re watching an episode of your favorite TV show, grab two chilled spoons from the fridge and place them on your under-eye bags. The spoons will work in a similar manner to your refrigerated eye cream, helping to de-puff.

It can be tempting to layer on lots of cream, especially if you’re excited about trying out a new product. But everyone's sensitivity to retinol and AHAs is different, so it’s best to be cautious until you know how well your skin will tolerate the product. Dr. Ford recommends a graduated approach: “We tell our patients to begin using retinol on Mondays and Thursdays for a few weeks, then up it to Monday, Wednesday, and Friday for a few more weeks, and eventually you’ll just be taking weekends off. Some people can tolerate these products every day of the week.”
And I was officially hooked. At only 23, I was used to looking perpetually exhausted. Genetics had played a role, sure, but very long hours at the office and a stress-ridden lifestyle certainly hadn’t helped. Even if I was able to diminish the shadows under my eyes with a heavy layer of colour-correcting concealer, the bags remained—and in some cases, the creasing made them look even more obvious. But I was still happier to resign myself to this rather than the alternative: As much as I wanted to say screw it and just go without makeup, you can only get (rude) remarks like “Are you feeling all right?” and “Whoa—late night?” so many times before it starts to sting.
I liked the products that I received but the service quality has me pretty angry. I told them to cancel my subscription as I only wanted to try one box. They told me to contact them again after I received an order confirmation. Got the confirmation, sent them another cancellation request, and didn’t hear back. A week later Paypal notifies me that Allure charged me another month. No matter how nice the samples are, I hate getting money stolen and poor customer service. Will not use again - Sincerely, a very pissed customer 🙃
If you’ve fallen into the habit of sleeping with your makeup on, it’s time to correct your bad behavior. Not only can falling asleep with a full face of foundation and heavy eye makeup on lead to breakouts—which you likely already knew—it can also result in puffiness. In order to wake up fresh faced, use a micellar water to remove every trace of makeup before bedtime. Simply saturate a cotton pad with the L’Oréal Paris Micellar Cleansing Water Complete Cleanser Waterproof – All Skin Types and sweep it over your skin, no need to rinse.
Worst experience with a beauty box subscription I have ever had. The first box did not even come with any of the detailed products for my first month and I only recieved four products total that was supposedly including the mystery gift. I did not recieve my first box until they took out a second payment for another month. They say that its only first month with a later ship date...nope thats a lie third month and I still dont reciece my box until almost into anothet month or into the next month. Here is the funny thing, no one knows where your box is either, i have been lied to and just flat out told I dont know. I ecen had a cusyomer service person hang up the phone on me at one point asking questions on my first month of the subscription because she was too busy. It was all of 5 minutes trying to understand how there box works as oppose to all of my many other beauty box subscriptions. With all the conveniences dont believe when they tell you they will send you a previous box to accomodate for all the inconveniences, I waited for three months for the september 2017 box I never got. Finally I spoke with the supervisor Josie and well now I understand why the customer service is in shambles I think she was the worst to have a title of supervisor in customer service of all. I would much rather wait on an email from boxycharm, or chat with birchbox than to email with no responses for a week and when you call get the rudest service I have ever experienced. Gave me such a bad taste in my mouth for allure in general ew! Dobt do it go for a box that has the same amoubt of product (sample size) for 5 dollars less like ipsy, sephora play, or birchbox. Save your time and heartache. 
Under eye bags are often a dreaded part of waking up in the morning. They can take your face from fresh to flat in an instant and make you appear tired, or even sick! While makeup, such as concealer can help to hide the issue, it’s not the ideal solution. Treatment and prevention are the right keys to banishing your under eye bags. So if that first look in the mirror each morning has you stressing, listen up, because here are the best ways to beat your under eye bags.
Also known as periorbital hyperpigmentation, periorbital melanosis and dark circles, under-eye bags may appear as the lower eyelid’s bluish discoloration (vascular type) or brownish to black hyperpigmentation (constitutional type).3 The eyelid skin is the thinnest of all body parts, particularly the lower medial eyelid, which has the lowest dermal to epidermal ratio.4 This is where fat accumulates through time, resulting in the development of bags under the eyes.5
We decided to call in the experts. First, we lined up in a conference room and took pictures of our tired-looking eyes—first thing in the morning, and makeup free. Then I called up a couple dermatologists and asked them to review the photos and tell me what we were looking at. I’m not saying that we needed to be diagnosed or that we had “problems” that needed to be “fixed.” But we knew we had these things that bothered us, and we wanted to learn about what we were working with, and what tricks we could use to minimize their appearance. The dermatologists I spoke to explained what makes eyes puffy, what causes dark circles, and what so-called bags even are. They pointed out the telltale signs in our photos, and gave their expert recommendations for how to treat them.

Still no tracking for me. I changed my card cause I don’t even know if I want to deal with February or March. I am curious for April though haha. They say they will BILL us when our box SHIPS and that isn’t the case. I wouldn’t care if that were true but I was charged for 2 boxes before I ever even got the first one. And now will be charged a 3rd before I receive the 2nd (last time it took 14 days to get to me after I got the confirmation email)


We almost feel as if all we need to tell you about this cream is the rating: it’s a perfect 5.0. Well, sure that happens from time to time, right? Not with 1,115 reviews at the time of this publication, though. That’s not typical at all. That’s over a thousand people giving it 5 stars, saying it’s perfect. It contains most the ingredients you’d think of for a wrinkle cream: hyaluronic acid, retinol, Vitamin E, and green tea, with the right amount of each to make all the difference. And if not, the product has a 100% money-back guarantee.
After cleansing your face and applying a layer of serum or whatever primer you’re using, it’s time to start dermarolling. Stretch your skin taut, and roll across it diagonally, horizontally, and vertically, pressing as hard as you can tolerate. I focus on my smile lines, lips, and underneath my eyes, as well as any acne scars or discolouration that needs tending to. Try not to roll over one single area more than a couple of times, and never use your roller on existing zits or open wounds. After you’re done rolling, apply another layer of serum to your face, and sterilise your device with rubbing alcohol before storing it in its case.
"After hearing my five-year-old ask about the lines on my forehead, I decided it was time to be more proactive with my skincare. I’ve always hesitated to try new facial products, especially lotions, because I have sensitive skin that was acne prone in my youth. Now at almost 40, my skin is quite a bit less problematic, but starting to show signs of aging. I’ve been using this now for a few months and it’s working well!" —CincyMom
I subscribed on Dec. 8th, 2018. Allure charged my bank account that very same day. No delays there. I understood that they ship boxes the third week of the month, and that is when I received my tracking number. Note: They also say, you will be billed on the same day of month as when you sign up. I received my December 2018 box on December 24th, which was a great day... Christmas Eve. As I was looking at the "new to me" subscription box as a Christmas present to myself. So this was my first Allure box ever. My box arrived with one item in it...damaged.
Hyaluronic acid filler injections can plump up the sunken under-eye area. Fillers are priced per syringe, typically between $1,000 and $1,400, and the results can last for a year and a half or up to five years. There are also laser procedures to destroy the superficial blood vessels that are showing through the skin, though experts say tread with caution as the wrong laser can cause hyperpigmentation (or even hypopigmentation, when the area lightens too much). Treatments range between $300 and $500, and may require two or three sessions to see results, plus annual maintenance.
The consistency, in my jar, is thick like pomade/defining paste for hair. This confused me since the instructions on the label say to “shake well before each use.” I’ve used it only at night since it is so thick and greasy no matter how little I used. No more than 1 hour after applying it I noticed that it becomes grainy on my skin and when I’d rub it particles would fall off like dandruff. It reminds me of how glue from a glue stick feels after it dries on your fingers and begins falling off.

Subscribed to the beauty box via MSA in early August, inputted a different shipping and billing address and they shipped it to my billing address anyway. I called and asked Allure why would they ask for that information if they're going to ship it to the billing address regardless, and they said that there are multiple ways to sign up and usually it defaults to the billing address, even if the shipping option is specified (so why even ask for shipping if that's the case? remove the option?). I contacted them multiple times via phone to see when they would send my beauty box (to the correct address this time). I was originally told 5-10 business days. After ten business days with no box, I reached back out and this time spoke to a manager. She was understanding, refunded my money, said she would send it out again but she informed me they only ship boxes out ONCE A MONTH. it would be 21-30 days for me to receive that box.
If you're often tired, stressed out, or sleep-deprived, then you most likely have had under-eye bags before. Under-eye bags are unsightly, making us look haggard, sick and old. Luckily, there are tons of products on the market to reduce eye bags, and many of them are inexpensive! Here are 5 cheap products that dermatologist swear by to get rid of under-eye bags.
In aromatherapy, essential oils are used to help boost a person’s mind, body and spirit. They may be diluted in carrier oil to be massaged on the skin, used with a diffuser or infused with hot water and inhaled via the steam.41 Aside from their therapeutic purposes, some essential oils such as lavender and Roman chamomile may help reduce puffiness and bags under the eyes because they contain anti-inflammatory properties.
“While there are many expensive skin care treatments on the market, nothing is better at preventing both skin cancer and premature skin aging than sunscreen. Studies have shown time and time again that regular use of sunscreens prevents the development of skin cancers, including melanomas, which can be potentially fatal. In one recent yearlong study, regular sunscreen use was even shown to improve the cosmetic appearance of the skin, likely because protective skin was able to heal itself. The best treatment for aging skin is preventing ultraviolet light damage to begin with. Skipping one day will not result in too much loss, but if you regularly take a pass, your skin will ultimately pay the price.
While many skin care companies focus more on advertisements and celebrity endorsements, Oxytokin is designed around purity of ingredients for effectiveness. Oxytokin recently became an internet sensation and users rave about visible, timely results. Priced UNDER $40. Oxytokin is delivers the best bang for the buck. The best part is that every bottle sold is backed by an unbeatable 100% Money Back Guarantee! Read more...
“While there are many expensive skin care treatments on the market, nothing is better at preventing both skin cancer and premature skin aging than sunscreen. Studies have shown time and time again that regular use of sunscreens prevents the development of skin cancers, including melanomas, which can be potentially fatal. In one recent yearlong study, regular sunscreen use was even shown to improve the cosmetic appearance of the skin, likely because protective skin was able to heal itself. The best treatment for aging skin is preventing ultraviolet light damage to begin with. Skipping one day will not result in too much loss, but if you regularly take a pass, your skin will ultimately pay the price.

I called them, didn’t mention the emails but said I wanted to cancel. The rep asked why I said $15 was too expensive for my budget. She offered me either 4 months at $12 each, a free box (said it was a bonus box? from several months back that others got.) She didn’t say what was in it. 3rd opinion was a free makeup bag. Then she told me what’s in the February bag. I should have just cancelled but took the $12 for 4 months. Figured I’d do that since it’s buy 3/get one free basically.
If coping with crow’s feet and laugh lines weren’t traumatic enough, there are thousands of so-called “miracle creams” on the market that claim to completely diminish the signs of aging in what seems like the blink of an eye. If spending hours in the beauty aisle of your local department store or scrolling through pages of products online isn’t exactly your idea of a fun Friday night, don’t stress!
Mine supposedly shipped yesterday. I’m so excited for it! I went ahead and ordered it because I had seen several people unbox it on YouTube. The value of the products is unbelievable for January. My theory is that allure had so many unsatisfied customers and cancellations from all the issues last year that they’re going to work really hard to bring those customers back this year. I think their goal is to make things right again and I predict some really good boxes in our future. I could be wrong but let’s hope not. 🤞
The best under-eye bag treatment is, in fact, not a cream at all. It’s caffeinated black tea, and it’s better than any fancy, beautifully packaged cream that I have ever tried. Here’s the method I follow, which I found on a skin-care forum long ago: I steep two bags in warm water for a few minutes, then allow them to cool for 5 to 15 minutes in the refrigerator. When the bags are nice and cold, I plop them over my eyes and lie down for ten minutes or so. When I remove the tea bags, my eye bags are totally gone as well. It’s that easy.

“Brands can’t just ship the same things over and over and expect to ride the coattails of this subscription success trend either,” Tzuo said. “In addition to demanding immediate, ongoing fulfillment, customers today want to be happily surprised on a regular basis. And if brands don’t meet those expectations, they get dropped, not to mention trashed on social media. It’s that simple.”

LOL I also don’t understand the outrage over a weeks delay of shipping your box. It’s kinda ridiculous. Throwing around the fact that you have been with Allure a year like you are more entitled is also ridiculous. I could in return say well wait just one minute here, I’ve been with them for 3 years and I’m more entitled than someone who’s been here a year. It’s dumb.
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